An athlete has been running marathons for the past 10 years. His best marathon time is 2 hours and 10 minutes.
Explain the type of training this athlete would undertake and use your knowledge of energy systems to justify your answer.
There are 5 types of aerobic training are continuous, fartlek, interval, circuit and aerobics
This type of training requires sustained effort until the exercise is complete. This means doing the exercise without resting time or intervals of the exercise. This training must go for no les then 20 minutes. Whilst performing continuous training the heart rate must reach past the aerobic threshold and remain in the targeted zone for the duration of the exercise session.
Some examples of continuous training are jogging, cycling and aerobics. An endurance running program requires the exercise time to be over 30 minutes per session. This is needed to see an improvement in fitness to occur.
There are two types of continuous training. The first one is long, slow distance training and is mandatory for any one who needs to improve general conditioning. People that use this training method aim at a heart rate of 60 to 80 percent of their maximal heart rate. The goal of this exercise is to focus on distance and not speed. The second type of continuous training is high intensity work of moderate duration. This is a very demanding exercise as the athlete performing works at 80 to 90 percent of maximum heart rate. Well conditioned athletes may only use this training and intervals of relief are even required. It is recommended that a beginner start with long, slow distance training until conditioned enough to perform high intensity of moderate duration. High intensity training is essential for developing leg speed. The outcome of this training would depend on what type of muscle twitch fibers the athlete has. Fast twitch is less suited to marathon running and slow twitch more suited to marathon running. This training requires that the aerobic or anaerobic thresholds be reached in order to see improvements in fitness
The participants in this type of training vary their speed and the terrain they perform on, necessitating the use of different energy systems. Because this type of training is continuous the aerobic system is the predominant energy system in use but with frequent bursts of speed, the anaerobic system is also developed. To incorporate speed into continuous training you can do regular bursts of speed every two or three minutes,
Run up and down sand hills, group running with changing leadership or cross-country running. Fartlek training is beneficial towards people who want to do pre-seasons training and prepare for activities or sports that require an interchange of systems e.g. rugby, basketball and soccer.
This type of training involves alternating sessions of work and recovery. It works both anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. To use this method of training the athlete must do a set amount of work in a set amount of time. An example of this is a 200 metre sprint in 20 seconds and then a period of rest time to allow the ATP/CP, lactic acid and aerobic energy systems to recover. The rest time may be any where from 1 to 2 minutes long and then u perform the task many more times in the exact same way. This training allows the athlete to work intensely but avoid fatigue. This is because there is a recovery period between the sets of sprints and the level of intensity is related to the length of the work interval. If more effort is required then the work interval is shorter. This type of training is similar to performing sets and reps with weights but it is working all energy systems at the same time and not just the ATP/CP system. It can use the overload principle the same as most weight training exercises. The four following variables must be manipulated in order for the overload principle to apply to interval training. Work intensity, work time, number of repetitions and the work-rest ratio. Interval training can be used to develop fitness components other then endurance like speed for example.
Circuit training is not the best type of training for a marathon runner as it only results in minimal improvements in aerobic capacity. This type of training is much more suited towards muscular endurance, strength and flexibility. Participants move from one activity to the next after completing the required repetitions. This type of training relies heavily
On the FITT principle (frequency, intensity, time and type) the aim for each activity is to exercise to overload or failure or near failure and then allow the energy systems to recover to some amount depending on intensity. Most types of exercises with this type of training do not require the anaerobic energy system but some compound exercises like the squat do. Participants aim to finish the circuit in the shortest period possible with decreasing times indicating improved fitness levels. This training may or may not be used for anaerobic or aerobic training depending on the type of activity and the number of circuits required. The principle of progressive overload in circuit training is achieved by
• Increase in time at each station
• Increase in the number of stations
• Increase in the repetitions at each station
• Decrease the time allowed for the circuit
• Increase the repetitions of the circuit
You determine the repetitions at each station by the individual’s targeted zone for heart rate response. The best benefits will be achieved when the overload principle is applied, the skills at each station concentrate on the attributes needed for a particular game/activity (this is sometimes know as specification) All fitness components essential to the particular sport or activity are developed. Cards with the records of progress should be kept so that athletes can be aware of there progress and if they need to change what they are doing to continue to see progress encase of reaching a Plato.
Aerobics is usually performed to music and includes improving flexibility strength and heart and lung fitness, The main components are a warm-up, a conditioning phase where the heart rate remains within the training zone for a minimum of 20 to 30 minutes, and a cool-down phase. Aerobics is often used as a means of providing variety to other programs.
This refers to the lowest level of work we one can do and still see some fitness gains. Thresholds are determined by work intensity, which can be calculated using the heart rate. The average maximal heart rate is estimated as 220 beats per minute minus the age. When people work at levels of intensity above the aerobic training threshold and below the anaerobic threshold, they are working within the aerobic training zone. If the exercise can be sustained in this state the result will be improvements in physical condition. The highest level is called the anaerobic threshold or the lactate inflection point (LIP) At this point further effort is characterised by fatigue. This reflects the balance of lactate entry and the removal of it from the blood stream.
The FITT principle
FITT stands for frequency, intensity, time and type. Using the FITT principle helps make sure that the training program being used has quantity and quality for the desired training effects. You can vary any one aspect of the FITT principle and this allows it to be suitable for all ages and both sexes. Frequency is how often we train which could be any ware from 1 to 7 days a week. To see any improvements in aerobic fitness you must train at least three to four occasions per week. Intensity refers to the difficulty level of the exercise in relation to heart rate measurements. Aerobic training is beneficial when it causes your heart rate to increase to 70 per cent or more of your maximal heart rate. Time refers to the duration of a training session or how long it goes for. Any training to improve aerobic fitness is required to be 20 mins or more. Type refers to the type of exercise you are performing and what muscle groups or energy system it is using. Some activities to improve aerobic capacity are swimming, rowing, jogging, cycling and power walking.
What you think?